By the birth of Quantum Physics, many new areas were opened for research and development in the world of science and technology. One such field is Quantum Computing and Communication.
What is Quantum computing ?
Quantum computing is the use of quantum-mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement to perform computation.
Quantum processors do not work faster than classical computers, but operate in a fundamentally different way, achieving unprecedented speedups by avoiding unnecessary computation.
Quantum computing is a red-hot field. Computer scientist Scott Aronson of the University of Texas at Austin points to a string of assertions about how quantum computers “will soon leave the Earth’s fastest supercomputers in the dust.”
The first challenge in presenting quantum computing is introducing how it handles information. In a quantum processor, information is generally stored in qubits, which are the quantum analogue of classical bits.
Qubits can take many forms, like atoms, ions, photons, and even the individual electrons that are running around on our electrical circuits. You can think of a qubit as the equivalent to the classic bits in modern computing, with a twist. Like bits, qubits are also measured using our binary system of 1s and 0s. But unlike a classical bit, qubits can be both a 1 and a 0 at the same time. It gets even stranger. Because a qubit can be both a 1 and a 0 at the same time, what you measure determines what a qubits final output will be. But how is this even possible? To know the answer of this, I will recommend you to read article(https://omicstutorials.com/quantum-computing-application-in-bioinformatics/)
Applications and Advancements
Teleportation involves the transferring of quantum state of a particle to another particle over a distance. It is based on the property quantum entanglement. Entanglement allows teleportation, the movement of information directly from one point to another.
“Quantum Teleportation Was Just Achieved With 90% Accuracy Over a 44km Distance” (source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_teleportation)
Machine Learning - AI world
Quantum computing has rapidly advanced in both theory and practice in recent years, and with it the hope for the potential impact in real applications. We recently demonstrated experimentally that quantum computers are able to naturally solve certain problems with complex correlations between inputs that can be incredibly hard for traditional, or “classical”, computers. This suggests that learning models made on quantum computers may be dramatically more powerful. (source: http://ai.googleblog.com/2021/06/quantum-machine-learning-and-power-of.html)
Quantum power in Biology
Some biomedical scientists have begun to look at how quantum computing might help them develop and apply algorithms and machine learning approaches in many areas of biology, such as protein design, drug design.
Template-free protein structure prediction is still a major open problem in computational biology. The solution to this problem has extensive applications in molecular engineering and drug discovery. However, many have wondered if quantum computing may be able to assist this problem.
“If you want to predict the structure that a protein will fold into, you have to find the lowest-energy conformation of a chain of amino acids from the zillions of possible conformations that that chain can twist into” says Vikram Mulligan.(source: https://wires.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/wcms.1481)
Amazing Facts about Quantum Computing !!
- Quantum computing is said to be more power efficient than modern computing through the use of quantum tunneling. They are expected to reduce power consumption from 100 to 1000 times.
- Quantum computers could speed up the learning process of AI, reducing thousands of years of learning to mere seconds.
- Cold temperatures are needed for stable quantum computers. The D-Wave 2000Q system is kept cool at a temperature of 0.015 Kelvin.
- While IBM’s Deep Blue Chess computer can calculate 200 million potential moves every second. With quantum computer, these calculations could be one trillion per second. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_Blue_(chess_computer)
→ Early quantum processors that can solve useful problems are expected to arise within the next decade. Understanding what quantum computers can and cannot do is therefore a priority for every computational scientist.